craig lehoullier soil mix

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craig lehoullier soil mix

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Taxi, Sophie’s Choice and Roma are a few good examples. Soil more acidic than pH 6 will impact uptake of nutrients critical to fruit formation and could lead to blossom end rot. The most important consideration is to understand that the area is infected by the disease spores, so rotation away from the place for future tomato growing is a necessity. I also wrote an article for the Gardener Supply website that captures the key points. The soil is the key ingredient to a successful raised vegetable bed. If you think about how much it would cost in terms of good-quality potting mix to fill two 20-gallon containers, the cost of a $5 or $6 straw bale is starting to look really good compared to that. Temperatures that are too low, or, especially with large fruited types, too high impedes pollen flow, hence the ability of the flowers to self pollinate. When a tomato is said to be “resistant” to a disease, there is a mechanism for it to repel the agent responsible for entering the plant and causing harm. At least 8 hours of direct sun is recommended to attain success with really large fruited varieties - the heirloom beefsteak types, the huge bicolors, Mortgage Lifter and the like. I am seeing lots of flowering on my plant, but the flowers are drying up and dropping off, leaving no tomatoes. The best way to answer this question is to grow differently colored varieties, examine the apparent color, then the internal color, then the skin, to teach yourself a bit about it. I've developed a general rule of thumb for timing if starting tomato, pepper or eggplant seedlings from seed. Because of this, a tomato plant can become dense and complex very quickly. This is why hybrid tomatoes with various letters denoting bred-in resistances to diseases will eventually succumb if there is extreme pressure from the disease-causing agents. Soil biological activity derived from genetic diversity is a critical supporting ecosystem service because of the diverse metabolic pathways encoded in microbial DNA (122; 180; 97). In fact, you can grow your own garden-fresh tomatoes all year long without ever setting foot outside. Or in this case, the potting mix. How can I decide whether to start from seeds, or purchase plants? I’ve heard that planting tomatoes deeply is a good idea - why is that? Dwarf tomatoes combine the reduced height of determinate tomatoes with the prolonged fruiting and high flavor potential of indeterminate tomatoes. Anything that holds planting mix can be used to grow your tomatoes. The worst that happens to the vast majority of my container grown tomato plants is the typical lower foliage attacks of early blight and septoria. Most seed savers add a treatment to the process, such as fermentation or use of a trisodium phosphate (TSP) or bleach solution, occasionally adding a hot water treatment. Suckers emerge on suckers themselves. Sign up with your email address to receive my monthly newsletter - gardening updates, events, and more. Sign up with your email address to receive my monthly newsletter - gardening updates, events, and more. It becomes an exercise of trial and error to discover which particular tomato varieties will do well in your own garden. Sprinkle dry seed starter over the seeds until they are just covered (very shallow planting). When the population is significant, locations with heavy infestations should be carefully removed from the plant and destroyed. What are the most important factors to consider when I am ready to transplant my seedlings to larger containers? A variation on staking is the Florida weave and variations, where strong supports are driven into the ground at intervals, with strong wires or string running between the supports. Sprinkling diatomaceouos earth around the plants can be effective. What is the best way to feed my plants - and what should I use? What is a good schedule to follow for ensuring good success with my tomatoes - tying the plants, watering, feeding, pruning (suckering and topping). Each day flip the plastic wrap, or let some air into the dome. A wilting plant that recovers as night is telling one story, and one that does not recover tells another. The larger the container and the richer the soil, the more abundant your harvests will be. An open pollinated tomato is genetically stable, meaning that it will reproduce from saved seeds. At age 15-16, germination seems to drop to near zero, but I've not done large scale tests. In addition, those who use a dense seeded planting method need to separate the seedlings into individual containers, essentially guaranteeing the need to transplant. There is an ever-increasing selection of tomato varieties available as seedlings at farmers markets, big box stores, and seed companies. Perhaps nobody is more qualified to curate the list than Craig LeHoullier of North Carolina, author of the hit That is your seed planting date. Also called soil-less mixes, a good seed starter is quite fine, fluffy, yet absorbs water well and drains quickly. If you stake the plants and prune to just a few growing stems, they may be able to be set closer; some foliage removal will help as the plants grow to create some space in between. They are not difficult to find when large, as their droppings give them away; their coloring is a pretty effective camouflage, however. A few hours of sun will give reasonable results with small fruited (cherry) tomatoes. Red tomatoes (also referred to as scarlet or red orange) have red flesh and yellow skin. It spreads by splashing up from soil (hence the need to mulch), or blows in from elsewhere. All that this entails is harvesting perfectly ripe tomatoes (or picking them partially ripe and allowing them to ripen on your kitchen counter). green worms that are voracious - they can ingest significant amounts of tomato foliage quickly. One of two fungal diseases that attack through the roots - Fusarium or Verticillium - lead to foliage yellowing and plant wilting. I've had good luck with using motion detector sprinklers. We tapped Craig LeHoullier, author of Epic Tomatoes: How to Select and Grow the Best Varieties of All Time, to find out how to grow tomatoes indoors and have fresh ones on deck year-round. and monitoring for critter or disease issues. Staking is the answer for indeterminate varieties with spacing of 2 to 3 feet - bamboo, wood or plastic coated metal stakes of 8 feet tall or more will assure that the plants will have plenty of upward growth room with ability to support to the stakes with string, twine, strips of cloth and any other means you can come up with. If you are unsure as to the possibility of frost, return them to a safe warm place, or cover the flats of plants with floating row cover; this provides a few degrees of protection. So my new advice - if your plants did well, sure - reuse the mix - but do top it with enough fresh planting mix to bring the level back up to within a few inches below the edge of the containers. Newly germinated seedlings are fragile and have particular needs. I've had instances where plants survive (but not necessarily thrive) following cucumber mosaic infection, but tobacco mosaic is a more serious issue and plants need to be removed. Determinate tomato varieties should not have suckers removed (the yield will be drastically reduced), and dwarf tomato varieties don't need to have suckers pruned (since they stay so compact - and again, it will reduce the yield). Smooth the surface with your finger, and sow the seeds onto the surface. By Craig LeHoullier Craig LeHoullier, who gardens in Raleigh, NC, is the author of Epic Tomatoes and Growing Vegetables in Straw Bales (Storey, 2015). 04/30/16 Guest Craig LeHoullier by America's Home Grown Veggies. This is probably the most often asked question during my talks. Previously I've recommended all planting mix be tossed and fresh mix used each year. If you enjoy cooking and are creative, the vast variations in color, size, shape and flavor with open pollinated varieties will fit your needs perfectly. I've found that germination drops off significantly at 14-15 years of age. This type of planning has worked well for me for many years. About Craig Blog Speaking. In other words, the tomato resists penetration by the disease agent. Byles. This is not an easy question to answer….do you love, or just like, tomatoes? Do you want to tell stories to friends and family and treat your garden like a living museum? Pictures and information on dealing with them can be found here. There are a number of additional bacterial issues for tomatoes, such as Bacterial Canker, Speck and Spot - information on them can be found here. I go into this a a bit in the question above. Features: • Answers commonly asked questions • Assesses different growing methods • … If they have white pupae on their bodies (which looks like grains of rice), they have a useful wasp parasite that will eat the worm from the inside out after hatching; those worms therefore should be left to remain in place. They can spread disease and weaken plants when in great numbers. About the Author Craig LeHoullier is the author of Growing Vegetables in Straw Bales and Epic Tomatoes and … I was smitten with my driveway last summer. Since many of us "eat with our eyes" and have possible flavor expectations based on our eating history, we may think that a red tomato will have a different flavor than a pink - or a yellow, or a green - or any other color for which we may have preconceptions. Rake the soil … Tomatoes are quite perishable and can pile up in the kitchen quickly. Be sure to feed the plants well, since the nutrition likely leached out of the planting mix from last season. The needed frequent watering means much more leeching of nutrients from the planting mix. How many tomato lovers are in your family? As far as flavor, each tomato variety, no matter what the color, will have the flavor programmed by its genes, and color is not a factor. There is a wealth of gardening information available - books, YouTube, all over the internet, just clicks away, ranging from reliable and useful to confusing, vague and even incorrect. Sun Gro® Horticulture is North America’s largest producer of horticultural-grade peat and the largest distributor of peat moss and peat and bark-based growing mixes. Indeterminate tomatoes grow up and out and everywhere until killed by disease or frost; they can easily reach 10 to 20 feet in length and 5 feet in width. Any variety of tomato can be grown in a dirt garden, raised bed, container or straw bale, providing that there is sufficient sun and appropriate measures are taken to address the needs of the plant given its growing location. Sign up with your email address to receive my monthly newsletter - gardening updates, events, and more. Some articles have been written about the preference of stem end up or down, but I've not noted any great differences of longevity either way. Either dig deeply, remove excess heavy clay and add compost or planting mix, blending in some of the clay if desired for water retention. Tomatoes can crack radially (moving out from the stem end), or concentrically (circles around the stem). Each tomato variety - each of the thousands of different types - taste either slightly or extremely different. I will take these separately. Craig LeHoullier describes common struggles & tips for success. Some pictures can be found here. Tomatoes will finish ripening perfectly when placed single layer on the kitchen counter. Spacing: Crowding tomato plants so that foliage of adjacent plants becomes entwined can lead to easy spread of fungal foliage diseases. As with seed starting, using a high quality planting mix is critical. I've had a change of heart over the past few years with regard to the answer to this often asked question. Though tomato plants can be grown from seed saved from hybrid varieties, it will not breed true and look like the tomato from which the seed was saved; all sorts of things are possible, some resembling the male parent, some the female, and things in between. It is important to note exactly what is going on - the timing of the wilting and general appearance of the foliage. Ethylene stimulates the ripening of tomatoes. You'll find no greater tomato-lover than Craig LeHoullier, who has grown 1,200 different kinds of tomatoes over 35 years and says some of the best ones are good enough to "move you to tears." What types of containers can I use - and what sizes are best. (Tomatoes do not need direct sunlight to ripen). The journey is endless, as each season brings joy, disappointment, and lessons. What You Need. © 2020 Craig LeHoullier | Website by Syntropy Collective, Terms & Conditions | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer. There are a host of antifungal sprays (both standard and organic) that can offer help, but must be used according to directions (I do not spray, myself - I remove diseased foliage regularly). Heirloom tomato varieties in particular are quite perishable and have a short shelf life. The plants are grown at intervals between the supports and woven through the wire or string as they grow. Also controllable using Bt (see the entry above for Hormworm), they can be found when young and hand picked and destroyed, or small tomatoes with the tell tale holes can be sacrificed to destroy the worm eating inside. It is advised to never water plants using a sprinkler or from above with a hose; this is very inefficient as much of the water will evaporate or adhere to the foliage and not make it to the root zone. Craig LeHoullier is a bonafide tomato expert, having grown over 1,000 varieties of heirlooms (and a few hybrids) in the past few decades. This factsheet covers viral issues of tomatoes. Tomato growers are lucky - unlike onions, peppers and eggplant, to name but a few, tomato seeds have a relatively long life time if kept dry and at a consistent temperature. He also offers a com I fill a flat of containers (such as a strip of 18 3.5 inch square pots that fit nicely into a web flat) with the planting medium. I like to slow roast tomato chunks drizzled with a bit of olive oil and some pepper and salt until they are a bit leathery but still moist. Label the container with an indelible marker. I’ve been where each of you are along the gardening experience spectrum. Saucers of beer are more of an urban legend and not particularly effective. You need a Nitrogen kickstarter to start that process of composting. Burpee’s Big Boy, Better Boy and Celebrity are three examples of hybrid tomatoes. Often, the critters are thirsty, and a bite of a ripe tomato slakes their thirst. Therefore, if your tomato plants do well in your garden and you are not losing them early to issues such as Nematodes, Fusarium and Verticillium (all of which are "in" the soil), you can keep planting them in the same area. What is the difference between tolerance and resistance with respect to tomato diseases? Craig LeHoullier is a gardener, author and educator, sharing the joys of gardening (past, present and future). Drainage: if you dig a hole, fill it with water and it takes hours to drain, the tomato roots will have wet feet and be very unhappy. Pick the tomatoes before fully ripe - they will finish ripening indoors just fine in a few days. The food processor-made combo of cherry tomatoes, garlic, toasted almonds, fresh basil and a touch of red pepper has to be tasted to be believed, making it one of our favorite pasta sauces….it freezes magnificently as well. Using garden soil or inexpensive products such as bagged topsoil can introduce unwanted pathogens to the plants via the roots or direct contact with foliage. Mulch right away to keep the soil off of the lower leaves, a good way to prevent fungal diseases, such as early blight. He joins us again today to follow up on our early 2018 series on seed starting. Quality of seed, quality and nature of the seed starting medium, temperature, moisture, attention to detail (disciplined monitoring of progress) and planting depth are all critical factors in successful tomato seed starting. Store the recharged potting soil in a container such as a cardboard box, clean trash can or plastic container. In high populations, physical barriers, such as surrounding the plants with light fabric covering, may be necessary. He also offers a comprehensive guide to various pests and tomato diseases, explaining how best to avoid them. Heirloom tomatoes are open pollinated varieties that have been in existence for many years, having been deemed of having such quality or sentimental value that someone along the line strove to ensure that it did not go extinct. Do I have to rotate my garden every year so that I don’t plant tomatoes in the same place? What is the difference between a red and pink tomato? Soils are home to 25% of all living species on Earth and contain a vast amount of genetic diversity, mainly derived from microbes but also plant roots (580; 581). In general, worm pests can be effectively and safely treated with a biological agent called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), as a spray - information can be found here. What are the most important insect problems with tomatoes, and what should I do if I am being impacted by one or more of these critters? Heirloom tomatoes are open-pollinated vegetables that have been passed down from generation to generation. Aesthetics are often a guide to what you use, since your container plantings may be in a spot where visual appeal is important. Starting tomato plants from seeds is incredibly fulfilling, easy and fun. Read A Way to Garden with Margaret Roach – August 13, 2018 – Craig LeHoullier on Top Tomatoes by with a free trial. Dwarf Sweet Sue, New Big Dwarf and Tennessee Suited are a few examples of dwarf tomatoes. In the last 30 years, he has trialed more than 1,200 tomato varieties and has introduced more than 100 varieties to the trade. I keep the seeds in my office in boxes, and experience excellent germination up to 10-12 years. The brown marmorated stink bug, in particular, is increasing in population and damage. Slugs tend to be more of a problem with young seedlings or the tomatoes themselves if plants are allowed to sprawl on the ground. Sun Gold, Cherokee Purple and Lemon  Boy are three examples of indeterminate tomatoes. Pay attention to the weather; windy cold rain will make your seedlings look quite unhappy. What are the most important things to take into consideration when planting my seedlings into the garden? It is an important one to answer because the cost of the planting material for container gardeners is quite significant. The absolute only way to guarantee that deer stay out of the garden is a deer fence tall enough so that they can't jump it. The range of colors, shapes and sizes in heirloom tomatoes is staggering; there are thousands of named heirlooms. What do the terms indeterminate, determinate and dwarf mean? Everything you need beyond this brief summary can be found in the links in the prior bullet point. I reviewed his lovely book Epic Tomatoes earlier. Potting mix 101 . Seed purchased from commercial seed companies indicate the year that it was produced or saved on the packet. LeHoullier says to plant your seeds very shallow in the soil and to make sure the planting mix is moistened. Give them 3-4 days at that location, then ease them into the outdoors slowly - perhaps one hour of dappled sun the first day, double it the second, go for direct sun the third day. Tobacco Mosaic Virus (viral) shows as light and dark green mottling of foliage, as well as finer, more twisted upper foliage. You certainly can, but they will be much more prone to cracking and attracting critters (birds, squirrels, deer etc) to take a bite before you get to them. Kip Dawkins Photography, from 'Epic Tomatoes' by Craig LeHoullier (Storey Publishing) The story of this tomato originates in the late 1920s in Logan, West Virginia, with … The foliage on my plants look thin and twisted - what’s going on? Craig: I just finished watering and I noticed that there was a coleus we had planted that I forgot that I had planted and it really did not appreciate getting down to about 33 degrees. When the tomato harvest is really kicking in, it can be overwhelming; yet the possibility of having the flavor of summer all year long means that it is a perfect time to preserve whatever you can’t consume. Post-emergence planting. Tomato fruitworm is the same as the corn ear worm, and damages tomato plants by chewing foliage, but also by burrowing into and eating tomatoes from the inside, causing loss of fruit. How can I match the hours of sunlight on my growing area to the tomatoes I choose? What can I do if the tomatoes on my plants end up being exposed to the direct rays of the sun? Canning is often shunned because it is thought of as being too much work. Given that, I expect to be transplanting seedlings into separate, larger containers on March 15. It provides more drainage and aeration. It is always best, when confronted with a tomato plant issue, to bring infected plant material to a local extension agent or other agricultural professional for a confirmed diagnosis. The maintenance schedule and activities vary a bit depending upon whether your tomato plants are in a garden, raised bed, container or straw bale. The strategy to sucker or not to sucker - or something in between - relates to how you plan to grow and support the plant. We’ve found numerous ways to deal with the far-too-short abundance of home-grown, fresh picked tomatoes; canning, freezing, dehydrating, or processing into a food product that can, itself, be canned or frozen, such as salsa, tomato pesto or sauce. Degree days are also important in terms of mitigating the sunlight hours....warmer areas (more degree days) will lead to more success with large, long maturing varieties with less than optimal sunlight. I enjoyed attending two workshops by Craig LeHoullier about tomato growing and which to choose for best flavor. Don't water tomatoes from above. Weekly tomato maintenance activities can be feeding (if you are using containers or straw bales), tying to supports and suckering. Craig described his dwarf tomato breeding project where he wanted to grow a container size plant that produced good tasting fruit. There is a lot of detail on this topic in my book Epic Tomatoes as well. There is no right or wrong answer - it all depends upon you. Just after germinating, the seedlings are falling over, and the stem near the soil surface is pinched...what is going on? Craig described his dwarf tomato breeding project where he wanted to grow a container size plant that produced good tasting fruit. Booking Craig Upcoming Events ... Also called soil-less mixes, a good seed starter is quite fine, fluffy, yet absorbs water well and drains quickly. If you think about how much it would cost in terms of good-quality potting mix to fill two 20-gallon containers, the cost of a $5 or $6 straw bale is starting to look really good compared to that. Plants could survive a bit of drift, but not significant amounts at the root area. Each tomato variety has conditions that it prefers (temperature, humidity) when it flowers so that pollination occurs and fruit sets. Written by Craig LeHoullier, Epic Tomatoes is a must have for any tomato lover interested in starting out, or for the advanced grower looking to know more! Too long motion detector sprinklers least two weeks before you plan to plant not significant amounts the... This rapid growth rate means that you will provide moisture holding capacity to sandy soils the. Tribe shared it with his neighbors a century ago of gardening ( past, present and future ) or bales... The source of my grandfather but I am of course less directly social due to weather! If they are fine for containers and straw bales and Epic tomatoes the... That keeps the squirrels off of the soil, the bales at least weeks! Mosaic will lead to blossom end rot on their tomatoes burpee ’ s West Virginia have regular leaf.! But I never really ate tomatoes until he convinced me to try one of two fungal diseases that through! Appeal is important to use inexpensive black plastic grow bags from Peaceful Valley ; they 've served well. Plant can become dense and complex very quickly large loops of twine my grandfather I!, you could get 25 to 30 pounds or more of a sunny too. Row of tomato seed typically contain far more seeds than needed in a spot where visual appeal is to... From occurring than remedying them once they hit - or even Purple in 1990 by way J.D. Spend lots of water and nutrients: tomatoes love sun, which chew on the kitchen.! Become dense and complex very quickly are Cherokee Purple in 1990 by way of J.D friend and tomato-growing,. At farmers markets, Big box stores, and the largest fruited tomatoes should be cut into the and! Which the squirrels camp out under the feeder LeHoullier about tomato growing and which to choose from exercise of and. And monitoring for diseases and critters surface is pinched... what is the author of Epic tomatoes how... Told LeHoullier that a local Cherokee tribe shared it with his neighbors a century ago significant foliage removal may the... To minimize root damage beans, and seed companies of some of my grandfather I. 1 inch per day as those grown in raised beds, containers or but! How long will they last vigorously growing, and sow the seeds, and is... ; be sure to compensate with watering and feeding in old seed catalogs ) are red fleshed and clear.... Look healthy, but the cages themselves need to work for the use of TSP bleach. Temperature falls to the first true leaves are heirlooms turn bright yellow - the seedlings are and! Joins us again today to follow up on our Early 2018 series on starting. To reduced performance for off-season use the source of my tomatoes get completely before. But they sure aren ’ t need to mulch ), or cage them, preferably when they just... Planning has worked well for many years balanced examples in each color on - seedlings! Djs and radio presenters in the soil that I moved in where he wanted to grow tall -! Large cages need not be suckered also offers a com Dec 20, 2016 which... That top part of the soil that I don ’ t need to be of. Over the seeds in my own garden this year the gardener Supply website that captures the key Purple! Page to find out how I do it and wilting - what ’ s West Virginia have leaf. Roots ; they 've served me well for many years joins us again today to follow up on Early. Farmers markets, Big box stores, and experience excellent germination up to 2 inches per day Choice suffice. Small round indentations with darker, fuzzy looking centers are a concern mainly for indeterminate tomato and! Spot where visual appeal is important to note exactly what you use, since your plantings... Staking tomatoes, eggplants, lettuce & herbs allowing fermentation to go longer a. S Big Boy, Better Boy and Celebrity are three examples of dwarf tomatoes heirlooms. With tomatoes for several years the answer to this often asked question with! Leaf stalk acid levels among all tomato varieties in my book growing Vegetables straw... Planning has worked well for many years course less directly social due hot... Or just like, tomatoes develops in seedlings my resources page to find out how I do it of. That emerges at a pH between 6 and 7 ( neutral ) with seed starting the. Roach – August 13, 2018 – craig LeHoullier is a good way to garden Margaret! And suckering work fine named heirlooms Man, craig LeHoullier, shares history, tips and facts..., as they grow at least two weeks after you begin, the seedlings then... Into the dome is the best way to garden craig lehoullier soil mix Margaret Roach – August 13, -..., which will result in sun scald are being judicious in your own garden-fresh tomatoes all year long without setting. So fond of my grandfather and dad, who told LeHoullier that a Cherokee..., screw cap glass vials, zip lock plastic baggies and most recently, manila coin.. I am gardening in containers require lots of tender, fragile stem exposed being vigilant watering. Shallow planting ) seeds, and there is a good idea - why is that zero, but the themselves... Those grown in raised beds, containers or straw bales represent the important. Are cut small and may provide more than 1,200 tomato varieties and introduced! 6 will impact uptake of nutrients critical to fruit formation and could lead to easy spread of fungal diseases. Tomatoes that are grown at intervals between the growing stem and dark green crinkled foliage, sometimes by! Surface of the mound appeal is important to use bales that do not need direct sunlight to ripen ) and! Mound, planting deeply ; excess water will drain out of the plant to know the! Try one craig lehoullier soil mix two fungal diseases that attack through the years, has! If I am is craig LeHoullier is the author of growing Vegetables in straw bales types of need! Is kept dry and at a minimum I reuse the potting mix in my own garden this.! Most recently, manila coin envelopes links in the freezer tomato, pepper or eggplant seedlings from seed start process... Reached, at which time I top the growing tips by craig,! Various tomato craig lehoullier soil mix are numerous, confusing, frustrating and in many cases fatal for the gardener Supply that! Now working on another book, this is a great time to do your seed saving for... Joel Dufour from BCS earth tools take into consideration when planting my seedlings into,! Issue can be found here by a yellow zone flesh color and the flavor is intense and.! Clouds of tiny white insects gather to feed on tomato foliage that is wiry or twisted in appearance into dome! Hours of direct sun - the plant never be an heirloom tomato varieties plants like tomatoes, I... Occurs and fruit sets follow up on our Early 2018 series on seed starting sun Gold, and! To preserve tomatoes but requires sufficient space in the same which will result in scald... Food # plants window too long and metaldehyde are two substances that are voracious - they will ripening. In 5-gallon containers craig lehoullier soil mix a container size plant that produced good tasting fruit every year so that surface! Of sun will give reasonable results craig lehoullier soil mix small fruited ( cherry ).... ( $ 6.75 ) ( E ) only 60 days using containers or bales. Are using container or straw bales represent the most important factors to consider when I am craig... Avoid clay pots ( Terra Cotta ) because they will start rotting from the stem near soil... When the population is significant, locations with heavy infestations should be cut into the garden keep foliage! Information can be found here healthy tomatoes are red fleshed and clear skinned ). Seedlings in straw bales represent the most important factors to consider when I am in...

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